Glossary of flipped learning terminology


Active learning

Learning activities in which learners are engaged and active participants in the learning process rather than being passive receivers of information.


Assessment involves gathering information and data to develop an understanding of learners’ knowledge and capabilities and evaluate their further learning needs.

Blended learning

Blended learning refers to learning environments or activities in which learning technologies are used in conjunction with traditional tools, environments and practices.

Direct instruction

Direct instruction involves an instructor delivering new information to students in order to facilitate learning. The term is commonly used to describe what many would refer to as traditional teaching, i.e. a one-to-many informational activity in which the instructor plays a central role as the provider of new information which learners are expected to internalise to further their knowledge.

Formative assessment

Formative assessments are carried out during the learning process to evaluate how learning activities are meeting learners’ needs. The outcomes of formative assessments may be used to modify learning activities or to help learners identify their own future learning needs.

Group space/shared space

A group space, also referred to as a shared space, is a physical, conceptual or virtual space in which learning activities are conducted with several learners at the same time. A group space is always situated within a learning environment and may include all learners within that environment or any portion thereof. The typical group space is the traditional classroom.


Any learning activities that learners are expected to engage in in their personal space.

Information and communication technologies (ICTs)

ICTs include any technologies that are used for accessing, sharing, working with, and creating information, such as; computers, smart devices (phones and tablets), networking devices, display devices (projectors and smartboards), etc..

Learning environment

A learning environment is any environment that is intended to facilitate learning. A learning environment can by a physical environment, a virtual environment or any combination of the two.

Learning technologies

Learning technologies are any ICTs that are used for the express purpose of facilitating learning. This includes ICTs that are particularly designed to facilitate learning and ICTs designed for other purposes when they are used to facilitate learning.

Passive learning

Learning activities in which learners receive new information is presented to learners to facilitate their own learning. New information is usually presented by a more knowledgeable person, often a teacher. A typical example of passive learning are one-to-many lectures.

Personal space/individual space

A personal space, also referred to as an individual space, is an environment that an individual constructs to facilitate their own learning. In their personal spaces, learners are free to engage in learning activities at their own time and pace and using whatever methods they feel are most suitable for their needs. The typical personal space is the learners’ home, where they would do homework.

Summative assessment

Summative assessments are carried out following a learning activity to determine how learning outcomes of the activity compare to certain benchmarks.